Why SFP Transceivers Stop Working and Their Possible Troubleshooting Guide

A Small Form Factor (SFP) transceiver is a compact hot swappable module that is used in computing for both telecommunication and data communications applications. The increase in the high-speed data transmission due to the demands of the people have led to the fast rise in demand for the SFP modules.

SFP transceivers can be used in a variety of applications. However, sometimes they do not always work according to the way they are intended to. When this happens, it may be a good idea to determine why the SFP module is not working. If you are a newbie to the transceiver world, and it happens that your module stops working, this guide will assist in providing a number of solutions.

Common Reasons Why SFP Transceivers Stop Working

1. Compatibility Issues
2. Defective Components
3. Excessive Dust

1. Compatibility Issues

Most of the manufactures guarantee a 100 percentage compatibility, and this may not always be the case. Sometimes the device may not be compatible, and you may find yourself troubleshooting it without any tangible results.

If this happens, its solution may be more challenging and may require more technical knowledge that what a typical novice may have. If any part your infrastructure is old, chances may be that the new transceiver has been manufactured with the new technologies. It is thus advisable that you consider replacing the device.

Errors Associated with Compatibility Issues

Transceivers that have compatibility issues may display the following error message.

“% GBIC_SECURITY_CRYPT-4-VN_DATA_CRC_ERROR: SFP in port 123456 has bad CRC

%PM-4-ERR_DISABLE: gbic-invalid error detected on Gi2/1/20, putting Gi2/1/20 in err-disable state.”

Detecting Compatibility

In order to detect compatibility issues, most of the transceivers have a burned-in chip that contain information such as the serial number, the security information, and the vendor ID. If the information does not match what is contained in the database, the device will be disabled making the device stop working.

2. Defective Components

At times, the components of the transceiver may burn out prematurely. This may happen to a variety of issues. Most of the vendors often build an automatic shut down to the entire machine in case the machine malfunctions.

The transceivers may equally stop working due to the tear and wear. If any component of the transceiver malfunctions, it is recommended to make a good assessment in order to determine the problem. At times, it is better to buy a new SFP transceiver other than trying the repair on a faulty one.

3. Excessive Dust

Optical devices should not be exposed to dust. Always insert into a dust plug when the SFP modules not in use. When the LC connectors are affected by dust, it may cause the module to stop abruptly working. Dust affect the signal transmission making the optical transceiver stop working.

Diagnosing SFP Module Problems

To properly diagnose SFP transceivers, you need to get the right problem statistics from the browser interface, the Command Line Interface (CLI) or from the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP).

Most of the common and diagnosable problems include;

A. Poor Performance
B. Lack of Connectivity
C. Corrupted Software

A. Poor Performance (Excessive Errors)

Possible Cause

This problem is caused by cabling distance exceeding the set distance, the port statistics showing excessive frame check sequence, late collision or alignment errors.

Resolution

1. Reduce the cable length to within the recommended distances
2. See the provided SFP module documentation for cabling guidelines.

B. Lack of Connectivity

Possible Cause – This problem relates to the cabling. The use of bad or incorrect cable, incorrect cable wiring, or a cable having loops, may result in this type of problem.

Resolutions

1. Verify to make sure that the pin outs are correct for the proper application of the cables.
2. Replace the used cable with a tested good cable
3. Wait for 30 seconds for the LED to turn Green.

C. Corrupted Software

There are two issues associated with corrupted software. These are;

(a) The port is placed in an error-disabled state after the SFP is inserted.

Possible cause – This problem is caused by the use of a bad transceiver.

Resolution – Remove the SFP transceiver from the port and replace it with an approved module.

(b) Does not Recognize the SFP Module

Possible Cause – This problem generally relates to the SFP installation. The module may be installed upside down or does not snap into the slot.

Resolution

1. Verify that the module is not inserted upside down.
2. Remove the SFP module and inspect for any physical damage to the connector, the module or the module slot.
3. Replace the used SFP module with a known good one.

The SFP transceivers may stop working because of a number of reasons. It is always a good advice and practice to know why the module is not working. If you try to fix any problem with prior knowledge, you will simply be doing a trial and error method without making the proper diagnosis. Once you make an identification of why the transceiver is not working, it will be easier to determine a better solution.

A Newbie’s Guide to Internet Marketing

An effective marketing strategy is considered to be the key for any business to generate profits. Businesses might invest extensively in research to develop the best products with ultimate quality and valuable features but they will eventually become a piece of rubbish if nobody knows about that product. Here comes the role of effective marketing, which helps you stimulate sales and generate profits. Marketing means the utilization of effective marketing mix (the 4 P’s- products, pricing, placement and promotion) to stimulate exchange of goods and services among individuals and organizations. Effective marketing is believed to be the backbone for a successful business strategy and involves identifying customer needs, producing products, pricing them, distributing them and promoting them to generate sales.

Internet Marketing

Definition: “Internet marketing also referred to as online-marketing, web-marketing, or e-Marketing, is nothing but the marketing of products or services over the Internet. It is a way of selling or advertising your product or services through the use of, the internet.”

Origin of E-Marketing

The origin of internet marketing can be attributed to the invention of Internet, a global data communication system. A revolution, that brought the media to a global audience. Today internet is considered as the medium of mass communication.

In late 1990’s when the use of internet gained popularity and attracted millions of people to surf around the globe, businesses realized that there is no preferable way than internet to reach to masses. They soon started using internet as a medium of communication and hence it gave birth to the field of Internet Marketing.

Scope and Importance of Internet Marketing

The interactive nature of Internet marketing in terms of providing and eliciting instant responses is a unique quality of the medium. It encompasses a much broader scope as today it does not only involves the marketing on the internet or via email and wireless media only. But its scope has been expanded to the use of management of digital customer data systems and electronic customer relationship management systems (ECRM), which are widely used in businesses today.

As technological advancement has brought with it several additional functions and uses of the internet, internet marketers are incorporating these features to evolve creative means of marketing their products and services including design development, online sales, placement of media along different stages of the customer engagement cycle through search engine marketing (SEM), search engine optimization (SEO), e-mail marketing and advertising, banner ads on specific websites, Web 2.0 strategies are just to name a few.

Hence with the advent of internet marketing, its prevalence have been observed in every industry from online banking, to virtual universities, to internet auctions like eBay and various e-stores, etc. PricewaterhouseCoopers reported that US$16.9 billion was spent on Internet marketing in the U.S. in 2006.

Today companies and businesses are vying online space and are seeking to adopt web marketing strategies to increase viewership and traffic to their websites and to enhance profits eventually.

A Detailed Guide On How To Get The Most Of Your T1 Bandwidth

There is increased demand for T1 Bandwidth services in ISP circles and for well understandable reasons too. Not only is this platform especially suited for large business applications but is crafted with versatility in mind. It will therefore fit in with the requirements you have for your project and give you enough options for future expansion of your data communication needs.

Compared to cable and DSL connections that are dedicated for those who access the web for domestic applications, this platform is far more robust. Moreover it is offered with a guarantee of the throughput you get per month. This is necessary to guarantee that you have constant access on which to launch your applications without hitches regardless of traffic congestion over the network.

The speed that is guaranteed on the T1 platform is not possible to be delivered over a dial up or Wi-Fi connection. The companies that offer the service typically launch it on optic fiber connection. This guarantees the speed and all round efficacy that is necessary for the business applications you have in mind.

As a company seeking an integrated communications solution there are plenty of offers that will deliver in this respect. As it might be counter-productive to have different carriers handling data connection as well as telephone. In other words, an all in one solution should suffice for your needs.

On a T1 bandwidth connection, it is possible to offer both voice and data services on a single connection. The versatility that comes with optic fiber guarantee that the quality of either service is not unduly compromised by this double sided solution. In effect, you will manage to get a more reliable connection without having to pay considerably more.

Even within the specification, there is adequate versatility to offer clients of differing needs more than enough choice. Businesses that have low level demands of communication requirements can actually enjoy the superior speeds without having to pay premium rates. To guarantee the lower price tags, such businesses will have to settle for fractional and integrated T1 cable connections in place of full fledged T1. These alternatives are adequately robust provided that the network is not overloaded.

These connections typically require a level of initial investment that is higher than what would suffice for a traditional dial up connection. The equipment needs to be adequate for the present applications and give adequate allowance for future expansion. The choices you make with regards to the equipment provider as well as the service company are crucial in ensuring that the quality of service is not compromised. In particular, make sure you get a proficient firm to take care of the fiber cable network.

Getting the most out of an Internet Services Provider deal has to do with a proper assessment of your business requirements over time. The solution you eventually get must conform to the quality your business is renowned for without compromising on speed and all round efficacy. Begin by first evaluating a number of available T1 bandwidth offers on the web before making your choice.

Business Process Improvement – A Beginner’s Guide

The majority of business process improvements were developed in the manufacturing arena but the core techniques and principles remain transferable across most industries today.

Business process improvement focuses on ensuring that functions are done correctly, by reducing waste for example. We begin by defining the strategic objectives of an organisation, targeting the customers of that organisation and making the business processes in line with those objectives.

BPI tends to look at a radical change in the business performance rather than a slow change approach. Change is not intended to be trivial but rather a revolution. Re-engineering is a term often associated with these changes.

Businesses process improvement looks at the primary roles in a business, the management system, the business leader, the process owner, the operation manager and the process operator. Each has a unique set of responsibilities but all need to work together as a unit. The business leader creates the business plan which was devised through the strategic planning process. They communicate the the business plan through the organisation, they build communication bridges and remove barriers. They analyse the performance of the business and use management data to guide the business to ward its objectives.

Meanwhile the owner of the business process is the person who designs the processes necessary to achieve the objectives set out in the business plan that was created by the business leaders. They create and approve the documentation that supports the process. They are often supported in this work by the process improvement team. The starting point is to understand the customer requirements which translate into a set of metrics overseen by the operational managers and are commonly known as KPIs or key performance indicators. These are what measures that the customer requirements and expectations are being met.

The process operators analyses the performance data to review the performance of the process. They create performance improvement plans based on that performance data and this may include Lean practices to reduce waste such as Six Sigma. Improvement plans include risk analysis to identify problems within the process and mitigate against their consequences.

Meanwhile the operational manager brings resources and process together to deliver the targets set out in the business plan. This follows a classic plan, do, check and act cycle. Finally the process operator performs the work needed to achieve the objectives of the business plan again using the do, check and act cycle.

Processes need to be in line with business goals. Customer needs to be at the centre of business process improvement and results need to be regularly benchmarking to be able to measure improvement and progress.

Plastic Optical Fiber and Its Huge Potential in Optical Communication

Since the inception of lightwave optical communication with fiber, the focus has been on the technology for long-distance telecommunication applications. And that is why single mode glass optical fiber has been the most preferred channels for such applications.

Because of the ever-increasing need for more bandwidth, the data communication market has risen to the forefront in fiber optic communication. After several rounds of competition with other technologies, Ethernet is obviously the winner for LAN networks.

Silica-based multimode fiber is adopted to provide an inexpensive optical link with a combination of transceivers based on Vertical Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSELs).

However it is not the best solution to distribute such a silica-based optical fiber even in premises and home networks or interconnections.

Why? Plastic optical fiber (POF), with its its large core, has been expected to be the office and home network media. Plastic optical fiber’s large core allows the use of cheap injection-molded plastic connectors which can significantly lower the total link cost.

But POF has its own problems. The most important obstacle is plastic fiber’s high signal loss (attenuation). PMMA has been used as the light guiding core for commercially available step-index POF and PMMA’s attenuation is about 100 dB/km. This high attenuation significantly limits POF’s applications in data communication applications of more than 100m.

Here is the good news though. Developers have found that PF amorphous polymer based gradient-index plastic optical fibers eliminate the attenuation problem with PMMA based plastic fiber. They have developed PF-polymer based Gradient-Index (GI) POF with attenuation level of only 10 dB/km. Based on theoretical calculation, PF-polymer based GI POF can achieve similar level of attenuation as silica-based glass fiber of 0.3dB/km.

With a optimized refractive-index profile in the PF-polymer based GI POF, more than 10Gb/s data transmission speed can be achieved over 1km. This is the metrics of PF-polymer’s low intrinsic loss and low material dispersion.

Combined with this theoretically possible high bandwidth and low total link cost, PF-Polymer based gradient-index plastic optical fiber has a huge potential in fiber optic data communication applications.